Discovering more about Cummingtonite Mineral

The earth is full of important minerals that are always deposited in soil, rocks and even under the sea. These minerals serve specific functions and when mined, they can be used to come up with important products that will bring about change and development in the world. Cummingtonite is an important mineral which is also recognized as a middle member of the series of minerals by the same name. These series includes magnesiocummingtonite and grunerite. The minerals are specifically known by the formulae which is essentially the same, that is (Mg, Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2.

Their distribution and percentage

Many professionals always have a different view when it comes to their percentage and how they are distributed, this makes the whole idea to become even more important to debate and trying to get a lasting solution has been the key concept that is always applied by professionals as well as scientists. The key important details that you should know is that the percentage of magnesium to that of iron always vary in the series and this determines the minerals. Grunerite has a iron rich member which offers a greater ration of Mg/(Mg +Fe)- this equals 0.00 to around 0.29 while in the magnesiocummingtonite, the magnesium rich component has a ratio that equals 0.70 to 1.00 making it an important series.

Magnesiocummingtonite presence in the Cummingtonite mineralAmphibole_-_Cummingtonite_w-_chlorite_in_schist_Magnesium_iron_silicate_3800_foot_level_Homestake_Mine_Lawrence_COunty_South_Dakota_2071

When it comes to looking at the same ratios, magnesiocummingtonite has a default ratio of 0.30 ranging to 0.69. It is through its ratio that it becomes one of the rich members and great. According to proven research, cummingtonite was found to have similar formula with another important mineral which is the anthophyllite. Both the two minerals are known as polymorphs. This is a condition in which two minerals will share same type of chemistry but they have different structures. This mineral serves an important role in its series and it is highly valued. Many understand it as an important mineral. It is a great component of regional metamorphic rocks which are believed to occur through the minerals enstatite, hypersthene, or olivine and they are produced at expense of the cummingtonite. It is a great mineral of its kind; many scientists value it as one of the most important and highly valued mineral in the world due to its uniqueness and novelty nature.

Its color varies

The mineral has a variety that is known as amosite which is seen as asbestos in form and can be used likewise. It is used in industries to perform several other works to ensure that products receive a perfect outcome. It is also known as a health risk when used in plenty since it is made up of many other different minerals that have a fibrous habit. The best varieties that are highly valued from it are the tremolite and Serpentine asbestos which have higher flexibility and tensile strength. In South Africa, cummingtonite asbestos is found in plenty and mined for many other uses. It is an important mineral that plays m a major role in industry. The color of this mineral is dark grey but it can vary and appear as dark green or sometimes even greenish-brown.


5 Interesting Facts About Earthquakes

Having lived in southern California, I am all too familiar earthquakes. They are frightening when they happen, but the more you know about them can really help. Earthquakes seem to come out of nowhere, and attempts to predict often seem to fail. The state of California in the United States probably has the most earthquakes in the world, maybe as many as 10,000 per year. Most earthquakes are very small and hardly noticeable but others cause massive destruction. One of the world’s strongest earthquakes took place in Alaska in 1964.

Random-facts-japan-earthquake-Shortened-the-day-copyFirst of all, earthquakes do not just suddenly happen. They are a result of the natural movement of the earth, and happen when two or more tectonic plates move against each other. So far scientists know that the planet’s surface is covered with at least twenty tectonic plates which are constantly on the move. An earthquake occurs when one or more of these plates move against, go over or under another plate. The resulting force causes what is known as an earthquake tremor. A tremor acts more or less like a wave motion which moves through the earth.

When an earthquake has occurred, you will often hear scientists talk about the earthquake having a hypocenter and an epicenter. The hypocenter of an earthquake is located underneath the earth’s surface where the tremor begins. The term is not commonly used, but we will often hear a news broadcaster explaining the location of the epicenter. The epicenter is located immediately above the hypocenter on the surface of the planet.


You may also have heard the word magnitude mentioned. The magnitude is measured on the Richter scale, and the highest magnitude is 10, and is the measured value of the size of the earthquake. Small earthquakes around the value of magnitude 2 cannot be felt, and the majority of earthquakes which occur around the world are about a magnitude 4. A magnitude 4 earthquake may be more noticeable inside a building than outside. Objects on shelves or walls may shake during a magnitude 4 earthquake. The biggest earthquake in history measured a magnitute of 8.5.

Most of us believe we can hear an earthquake, but as a matter of fact we can’t. The human ear can detect sounds in the frequency of 20 to 20,000 Hertz. A large majority of earthquakes which occur have a frequency of less than 20 hertz which could perhaps explain why pets are more sensitive to earthquakes. Pet owners in areas of the world with frequent earthquakes often claim their pets can “sense” the quake. More than likely, the pet can hear the actual sound wave of the initial tremor. What we humans hear is the movement of buildings and shaking home contents.

Larger earthquakes are always followed by aftershocks. They will occur along the same fault line where the plates met, but may not occur in the exact same place. Some aftershocks may be stronger than the first quake, and scientists then designate the stronger aftershock as the earthquake.

Earthquakes may be unpleasant and even dangerous but, without earthquakes the earth’s surface would not look like it does today, and we would not have separate continents.

Facts about Earthquakes

Earthquakes are destructive to homes and closely built commercial buildings. They are catastrophic and in most cases cost lives. Governments pay a lot for insurance, evacuation and infrastructure repair. Research development in earthquake engineering aims to provide a sustainable solution to this. The institutions are assessing different regions that are potential for high magnitude earthquakes. It is costly to construct structures that can resist earthquakes. By inventing and reconstructing stable architectural designs people can handle variations of seismic effects of the earthquakes. An earthquake is simply a shock wave. The wave radiates through the Earth’s surface causing varying effects. The effects can be mild, prolonged or even unnoticed. Causes EarthquakeFacts One of the many facts about Earthquakes is that they are caused by movements within the Earth’s crust. The Earth is composed of the inner and outer core, a mantle and a thin crust that covers the mantle. The crust is most essential as a surface holding our oceans and massive continents. The crust is composed of various rocks called tectonic plates. They are connected like jigsaw puzzles constantly moving around. The plates slide moving horizontally some sliding beneath and others push and force the ground upwards. The plates can also move around or pull apart from each other. The Tectonic Plates These tectonic plates movement create massive pressure that causes friction. The plates are rocky and cannot smoothly by-pass each other. When pressure overcomes tectonic friction, there is a sudden movement of the plates. The rock waves are then radiated through the surface rock that is a foundation to buildings. Aftershocks can continue for different periods depending on the quakes magnitude.?????? Fault Lines Fault lines are particular areas where tectonic plates join. These faults are highly sensitive to earthquakes with a high and regular occurrence. The areas are closely and well- studied globally. The San Andreas is a fault running all the way across the West Coast in the North America region. Another Fault line is the one running between Papua New Guinea towards the Australian Continent. New Zealand, Taiwan, Tonga and Japan are also situated in this region. It is important for people living in these regions to protect themselves by constructing earthquake-resistant and protected houses. Responsible authorities can practice emergency earthquake drills to sensitive people regarding safety. Effects of Earthquakes Earthquakes have massive effects on our buildings and land. They cause tsunamis that have fatal effects to our life. The violent shakes resulting from earthquakes cause buildings to collapse leading to tragic deaths and heavy casualty cases. Earthquakes destroy extensive power lines and disrupt the natural gas supply pipes. Land terrain changes to accommodate the drift of the titanic plates. The land either collapses or drifts apart which in turn causes more disastrous effects. The friction causes water shocks that collide with land leading to creation of a bigger single wave that ends up sweeping the inland. The high water levels cause destruction and deaths. It is important to know how to protect yourself during an earthquake. Drop down onto your knees before the earthquake and cover your entire body or head. Hold firmly onto the closest shelter and be aware of what is going on around you. Be prepared to consciously move to safer areas to avoid injury. Earthquakes are natural and therefore require proper planning and anticipation procedure in case it happens. Finally, find more about earthquakes to be safe always


The heart is the centre of the cardiovascular system. Its role is to pump blood throughout the body thereby helping carry nutrients as well as oxygen to every part of the body. It also helps remove waste from your body. A healthy heart is therefore very essential for your overall health.

Facts about the HeartCrittenton_HeartHealthInfoGraphic_FINAL

– Your heart beats about 100 000 times every day, pumping 2000 gallons of blood through your body.

– Size: Your heart is the size of your fist and is tasked with the responsibility of pumping blood through the 60 000 miles of blood vessels that feed all your body tissues as well as organs. This makes your heart a very essential organ that should always be taken good care of.

– Happiness: When you have a good belly laugh, the supply of blood to your entire body increases by 20%. Happiness and a strong sense of vitality help lower your risk of heart disease.

– Your heart can continue beating even when separated from your body as long it continues to receive an adequate supply of oxygen. This is because it has its own electrical impulse.

– Work load: The heart is the hardest working organ in your body.

-Heart beat rate: A woman’s heart beats faster than a man’s. An average man’s heart beats approximately 70 times per minute, while that of an average woman beats 78 times per minute.

– The heart begins to beat 4 weeks after conception.

– Heart attacks: You are most likely to have a heart attack on a Monday morning than any other day of the week. This is because of the rise in the levels of cortisol, which is the hormone responsible for causing stress. Returning to work on a Monday morning after relaxing over the weekend raises the levels of cortisol in your body, leading to a rise in blood pressure and an increased heart rate. This in return causes the cholesterol plaque that has built up with time in your arteries to rupture and hence blocking blood flow to your heart. 65303_4

-Sex: Having an active sex life can reduce your chances of dying from heart disease in half. Experiencing an orgasm three or four times every week can help protect you against a heart attack or stroke. This is according to a research conducted in Britain.

-Signs of Heart Attack: Not only are women’s hearts smaller than men’s, but the signs of a heart attack differ between men and women as well. When a woman has a heart attack, she is more likely to experience nausea, shoulder aches, as well as indigestion, rather than the characteristic chest pain experienced by men.

– Heart disease: This disease is the biggest killer among all diseases. It kills the highest number of both men and women the world over.

– Cancer: Heart cancer is a very rare disease. This is due to the fact that heart cells stop dividing early in life.

– Regular exercise: It has been shown that regular exercise is the most important single factor in the health of your heart.

– Diet: Good diet and managing stress contribute greatly to the health of your heart.

-Pacemakers: The first patients to have ever used pacemakers plugged into a wall socket.

These are some of the facts about the heart that you should be aware of so that you can appreciate the importance of keeping it in good health always

Mephobia: Fact or Fiction?

Mephobia is the fear of being too great to be handled by mankind and will lead to depletion of the human race.. This is not exactly an English word though can be found in the Urban dictionary. It would be correct to go ahead and say that the word came up from me’ and phobia’ meaning a fear of oneself and what they are capable of.

Although it may appear as funny to many, this is a condition that actually does exists with a few reported cases on record. This however is also a scapegoat of many who claim to be having mephobia. Known examples of people with mephobia are Chuck Norris and Morgan Freeman among just a handful of others. Considering this small number of people, it would be somehow right to conclude that this is a new condition that just forms in famous and wealthy individuals that have no much worries in life other than to believe how much better they are than others despite knowing quite well that they are no different than the rest of the people.

Since mephobia has always been used in the world of fiction, many would maintain that that is where it actually does belong as thinking that one is so much better than others and actually going to the extent of having fears about it, shows that dreaming and fiction are starting to be part of reality for some people. An example in fiction stories is that one of Batman being capable to survive the condition by assuming to be Bruce Wayne. mephobia

How dangerous would mephobia be in the society is hard to tell. The fact remains that we should at least be grateful that few cases exist regarding this condition as having an excess number of people with this condition may not be something worth looking forward to. Considering the lack of fatalities directly related to mephobia, it will actually be safe to say that no real dangers are posed by the condition and it is actually an inner psychological belief that may be curable if the affected person is willing enough to undertake psychiatric help.

Therefore, it would not be too much on the wrong to think that such people with this condition are actually hazardous to the society as lack of control coupled with maybe some sort of drug abuse may lead to violent situations that non-mephobia persons thought unlikely to happen due to the hilarious nature of such a belief. It is therefore on a cautionary statement that mephobia be treated as an ailment of the human psychology just like mental cases where a harmless thought from a person can prove to be the most dangerous cause of massive damage to human and property alike.

So, however funny and unbelievable it may seem to appear, tests should be undertaken on the subjects suspected of having this condition and immediate psychological treatment administered on the subjects before something drastic comes from their awesomeness’ . Total human belief in something has always proved to do wonders to the innocent and unsuspecting world that human beings live in.


The only one you would not find in the Wiki’s list of phobias’ is the mephobia. (Now I am beginning to feel that Wikipedia isn’t that awesome either!) The word itself is self-explanatory. Mephobia (or ME’-Phobia if you will) is the fear of becoming so awesome that the human race can’t handle it, and everybody dies. I saw this term being frequently used all over the social networking sites and it got me thinking… What can someone possibly do to become so awesome that the whole human race detests it beyond its capability and dies!

Lifestyle? Looks? Money? Family? What exactly would do the trick? If someone tells me I 1FNgL94have mephobia, is it a good thing that I am made of pure awesome? Or is he merely being sarcastic with me, and insinuating that I am in a way different’ than the others! It’s still really a tricky word though. If I have mephobia, do I have the fear that I might’ become so awesome that I cannot handle the pressure and die? Or do I fear the others are much more awesome and then I die of an inferiority complex? I think the former makes much more sense. Then again since the human race can’t handle it and everybody dies’ is the scenario, the correct thing would be that people would not be able to handle the fact that I am so awesome and would die of pure jealousy. But furthermore, if the world can’t handle the fact that I am so awesome, doesn’t it mean that they’ have mephobia instead of me?

Whoa! It’s a lot to take in isn’t it? But this really is an interesting topic to introspect. Mephobia according to me is merely jealousy but wrapped in a good shiny paper which stills pressurizes us. For instance, the fact that someone else is more successful, has more money, drives a better car and lives in a better house creates a feeling beyond jealousy. We don’t want him to lose his stuff; we merely want to achieve all that he has-probably more. This alone puts us in a lot of pressure creating mephobia’. You don’t actually die in it. But you run behind your’ idea of awesome and then face either will-full euphoria or extreme depression; the latter obWhat-is-mephobia--Meybe-is-just-a-Me-Phobia-viously leading to a slow death.

Mephobia can also be a result of staying in constant touch with someone who is better than you in non-materialistic aspects. For instance, if someone speaks well, looks good, is excellent in weekly performances or his sales chart is always pointing upwards, it can also create the same sense of approach even though the lifestyle and money earned in this case is exactly the same.

This clearly states that a  comparative approach’ brings about mephobia in a person. The qualities that you’ find awesome in someone you idolize or look up to can create a sense of respectful-jealousy. Since there is no calibrated bar as to what exactly is the optimum level of awesome’ it always will be a result of a person’s concept of awesomeness. This is the same as success. Its meaning varies from person to person and from situation to situation.

Although dying from it is obviously too much to take, having mephobia wouldn’t really hurt! Setting up a level of awesome’ you personally want to achieve or acquire and striving towards it effortless seems pretty neat. It also can be taken as a compliment! (Implying that the other person thinks you’re awesome). A strong hold on our minds is the key to prevent from dying of it though. In this overwhelming rat-race, mephobia seems pretty obvious. But I was a little relieved for not finding the word in Wikipedia! It implies that it still isn’t a medically proven disorder! I’m cautiously optimistic though, that it never gets added to the list…


What you need to know about Stonehenge

The Stonehenge is an enormous stone monument that can be found on the north of the modern day city of Salisbury, England.

According to researchers the Stonehenge was built 5,000 to 4,000 years ago and was a part of a highly complex sacred landscape.

The biggest stones that are part of the Stonehenge are called sarsens, they are up to 30 feet or 9 meters tall and weights up to 25 tons or 22.6 metric tons.

Some researchers believe that these stones were brought from the area called Marlborough Downs; this is estimated at a distance of 20 miles or 32 kilometers and is situated in the north.

The Stonehenge also has smaller stones, they are termed as “bluestones”, this is because they have bluish tinge when they become wet, each of the stones weigh up to 4 stones and are said to come from various sites, one of the locations would be Western Wales.summer-solstice-sunrise-at-the-stonehenge

One of the greatest mysteries about the formation of the Stonehenge is the fact that nobody knows how the stones have been moved, during that time when it was made, there were no available systems to transport the stones.

Several scientists have speculated that glaciers carried the bluestones in order to get closer to the structure, removing the need for the makers to transport the stones all the way from Wales.

Another idea of how it came to be was through water transport. Some theorists are saying that the stones might have been transported using rafts, but there have been certain questions on how could this method become viable.

Creation process of the Stonehenge:

There are new archeological studies released, the IBM Visual and Spatial technology Center have taken the time to research using a number of technologies like penetrating radars and magnetometers in order to map out how the Stonehenge came to be.

According to the research, there has been widespread prehistoric hunting during that time, as stated in the research the Stonehenge was just a part of an every changing sacred landscape.

According to the reports created, Salisbury was already a sacred plain even before the creation of the Stonehenge.

Even before the Stonehenge, it is believed that 3 pine posts that served as totem pole was already erected in the site.

Researchers were also able to find 350 animal bones, and 12,500 flint stones in the area signifying rapid hunting.

The presence of abundant game could signify that the people of the ancient past could have considered the area of Stonehenge as something sacred or holy grounds.

Another discovery on the site would include a massive wooden building. This istonehenge-featureds believed to be the site of burial rituals. A lot of burial mounds were also excavated near the area of the Stonehenge.

It is indicative that hundreds, if not thousands of humans were buried near the area.

Stonehenge Facts:

· There are 17 shrines in the area; some have been shaped as circles.

· The construction of the Stonehenge began slowing down 4,000 years ago, and it slowly deteriorated due to neglect.

· It is believed that the circle was purposely aligned with the midsummer sunrise, the midwinter sunset as well as the southern rising and northern setting of the moon.

· The creators of the Stonehenge has made use of a ground plan as well as structural engineering and they have also made use of geometrical as well as mathematical rules in order to create the sacred area.

· It is estimated that it took thirty million hours of labor to complete the structure.